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Paper The 6th International Symposium for Sustainable Humanosphere (ISSH)
By : Sylvia J.R. Lekatompessy
Monday, 9 January 2017 (05:50) from terminal


Sylvia J. R.Lekatompessy1*, Liseu Nurjanah1 and Harmastini Sukiman1

1Research Centre for Biotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences,
Cibinong Science Center, Cibinong-Bogor 16911, Indonesia

*Corresponding author:

Potential beneficiaries of soil fungi that we are familiar with biofertilizer products BIO VAM - LIPI is one activity Biovillage program - LIPI. Applications BIOVAM - LIPI in support for plant growth jackfruit. The research result shows that the application of biofertilizer BIOVAM - LIPI significantly different at a given plant biofertilizer treatment of parameter plant height and diameter, at the age of 10 months, and compared with a control plant is a plant that is not given the treatment of biofertilizers. The result showed significant differences. Back to nature and slowly but surely, the expression used in the utilization potential microbial is basic research. Socialization microbial utilization potential is one of the technology's potential microbial given and informed in the villages to farmers. The fact to change the mindset of farmers who undeniably become a thing that is not easy to keep harness biofertilizer for soil conditions need to be known in advance, farmers do not want to lose and have more confidence in chemical fertilizers Utilization of microbial potential BIOVAM - LIPI expected to compete and generate a profitable crop production. A comfortable environment, do not use any chemical fertilizers, organic food and environmentally friendly being targeted biovillage program.

Keywords: biofertilizer; soil fungi; potential microbiol; organic food; enviromentally friendly

Agricultural development is supported by advances in biotechnology that are environmentally friendly, namely the use of biological fertilizer (biofertilizers) using microbial potential. Biofertilizer provide appropriate alternatives to improve and maintain the quality of the soil so that plants can enhance the growth, results and quality of the crops significantly. One of them is the use of biological fertilizer soil fungi, mycorrhiza.
To involvement LIPI, more specific with the involvement of potential microbial especially mycorrhizae fungi of soil that support plant growth. According to Irianto (2009); Turjaman (2013), giving the microbes potential to seedling level early capable of supporting plant growth significantly. Sukiman 2012, unpublished data, add to CO2 uptake provides information that plants with treated inoculation soil fungi mycorrhizae are able to absorb up to 747.72 tons per hectare while that plants without treated with mycorrhizae is 639.35 tons per hectare. Specifically, the data for these types of African wood plants, with other crops, CO2 uptake given with biological fertilizer treatment - mycorrhiza can reduce elevated CO2.
Through the program Biovillage, biofertilizers LIPI (BIOVAM-LIPI) will be used to set up plant seeds of qualified for the problem main faced today at the national level is the lack of a healthy crop seeds needed to rehabilitate degraded land. One of these plants was jackfruit, jackfruit plants included in the tropical forest plants and has potential which can be exploited wood, yellow subtances contained in these plants is used as a coloring material because it contains substances morine, these fruit can be consumed and roots of plants can be used as medicine. These plants can grow on communities, in addition to exploiting the potential of jackfruit plants. Plants also can assist people in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem. Saving water in the rainy season, and water supplies for the summer. In addition symbiosis between plants and microbes potential mycorrhizae can help absorb CO2 there.

Critical land has environmental conditions that vary depending on the cause of critical land . In general it can be said that the condition of critical land cause the plant is not getting enough water and nutrients, the physical condition of the soil that does not allow of the roots evolve, the process of infiltration of rainwater, the high salt content due to salt the secondary or the intrusion of sea water that cause plasmolysis and plant will be poisoning elements high among other toxic heavy metals (Subiksa, 2002)
Utilization of biofertilizer which be found there are potential microbes, can promote the growth, yield and quality of crops (10-100r more). Potential microbes can suppress the growth pathogenic of roots and increases the tolerance of plant roots against poisoning dangers of various heavy metals (Rohyadi et al., 2004). Also added by Setiadi (2004) the use of biofertilizers mycorrhizae are very significant because it can increase the growth, the quality of forest trees (revegetation) on mined land and critical land. Therefore, the use of mycorrhizae in the soil ecosystem revitalization is the right solution to accelerate the development of environmentally friendly farming in Indonesia.
BIO- fertilizer LIPI VAM fungi mycorrhizae that live symbiotically with plant roots. Benefits BIO VAM biofertilizer can stimulate the growth of plant seeds, increases the surface area of roots for absorption of nutrients and water, increase resistance to water stress, reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and the application Biofertilizer LIPI fungi mycorrhizae only once. Utilization of biological fertilizers, mycorrhizae as biofertilizer can support sustainable agriculture programs. In connection with biovillage program, rural communities living areas that are difficult to reach can use the plant seeds that have been applied bio fertilizer to help the reforestation program and the rehabilitation of degradation land.
Materials and Methods
This research was conducted using bio fertilizers M - of each that treatment was made and repeated of three times. Treatment of this study are: the factors be given mycorrhizae fungi, without mycorrhizae fungi, treatment of chemical fertilizer, treatment without chemical fertilizer and without biofertilizer mycorrhizae. Implementation of the experiment begins with the preparation of the soil to be used for growing media, among others, take of the soil, removal of garbage or dirt organic and inorganic. The soil media put in to a polybag. For treatment with biofertilizer, seed planted and given biofertilizer ± 2 gr.
Plant seeds that will be used seeds of selected were healthy, well, is not damaged or carry disease from seed. Seeds are ready to be planted and labeled in accordance with the treatment. treatment without giving VAM labeled: KO and treatment with biofertilizers labeled:BIOVAM mycorrhizae. Observations of research do every month.
The parameters observed were plant height, diameter, and then analyze the effectiveness from inoculants of Bio fertilizer - Mycorrhizae, among others, can be seen from the plant through indicators morphological, one of them with Relative Field Mycorrhizal Dependency (RFMD) or Response of Growth Due Mycorrhizae (TPAM) or Responses from Growth of Mycorrhizae (MGR), so in this study is used one of the variables observed. Relationships mycorrhizal with plants can be described by the plant's dependence on mycorrhizae, based on the results of analysis by using the formula (relative field dependencies mycorrhizae-RFMD) (Munyanziza et al., 1997; Brundrett, 1999):

Results and Discussion
Based on the results of observation in Figure 1. Shows of the plants were treated with biological fertilizer Bio-VAM significantly different compared with the untreated plants biological fertilizers Bio VAM. The parameters observed were plant height. Based on these results the effect of mycorrhizae Bio-VAM can help support the growth of plants jackfruit.
In Figure 2. Shows observation of diameter, the more significant. Plants were given a bio fertilizer Bio-VAM has a larger diameter than plants untreated biological fertilizer Bio-VAM.
Potential microbes in this regard is very helpful in the growth and yield, utilization of microbes to support plant growth of jackfruit. Figure 1 and 2 show the influence of microbes in supporting the growth of plant seen from the parameters: height and diameter of the plant. Differences were crops given of biological fertilizer showed more significant when compared to the untreated biological fertilizer. According to Haris (2005) the benefits of mycorrhizae, among others that: better plant growth so that results obtained so much more. This is because the effect of mycorrhizae can improve nutrient absorption area by using an external mycelium. Also added by Setyaningsih (2011), that mycorrhizae has the capability specific to the type of forest seeds other than that treatment effects of mycorrhizae on the part of plants that stimulated growth of plants. The increase in plant height growth tends to be faster with the use of mycorrhizae. Effect of diameter of plants, allegedly driven by the characters physiology. Forest plants tend to perform primary growth (plant height) at the beginning of growth so that the parameters on plant height more dominant on plants given mycorrhizae.
According Prayudyaningsih (2012) application of biofertilizer mycorrhizae can be done at the nursery stage so expect the resulting seedlings are quality seeds and resistant to extreme field conditions.
Figures and tables

Figure 1. Effect of biofertilizer BIOVAM application on height of plant of jackfruit on plant aged of 9 and 10 months

Figure 3. Effect of biofertilizer BIOVAM application on diameter of plant of jackfruit on plant aged of 9 and 10 months

Figure 4. The percentage growth of seedlings of plants jackfruit
Percentage of plant seeds planted using soil fungi BIOVAM in Figure 2. shows that the biofertilizer BIOVAM can to support growth of plant seeds on dilapang conditions. When compared with the control showed significant differences.

Table 1. Effectiveness of BIOVAM the jackfruit plants seen from Symbiosis Capacity, Symbiosis Effectiveness and Relatif field mycorrhizae depedency.

Treatment Plant Symbiosis Effectiveness (SE) Relatif field mycorrhizae depedency" (RFMD)
Nangka 120,42 168,14

Effectiveness symbiosis that occurs in a given plants bio fertilizer Bio-VAM seem high of plant of with treatment of biofertilizer. Mycorrhizae is a form mutualistic association between rooting of a high level of plant with soil fungi of mycorrhizae. Host plants acquire a variety of nutrients, water, biological protection and others, while soil fungi / mycorrhizal obtain fotosintat as a carbon source. This mutualistic association is an interaction between host plants, soil fungi and soil factors. Mycorrhizal able to associate around 80-90lants that spread in the arctic to the tropics and from the area bergurun sand up to the forest (Marx, 2004).
RFMD shows the relationship between plants and the mycorrhizae be described with dependence on mycorrhizae then plants could reach RFMD about: 168.14. Dependence of plants is very high on mycorrhizae because the plants need nutrients and water to support plant growth. Suri et al., 2011, mycorrhizae produces oxalic acid and enzyme phosphatase complexation constants and have a high Ca, Fe and Al dissolving element P. Additionally, mycorrhizae increases the absorption of P and N, micronutrients, especially Zn and Cu. Nurhandayani et al. (2013), that mycorrhizae the is able to be intermediary the uptake and nutrient supply.
The role of microbes in this case mycorrhizae fungi (biofertilizer BIOVAM) assist plants in obtaining nutrients and water with the help of hyphae, by increasing the surface area of roots, helps stimulate the growth of seedlings and help shorten the breeding, increased resistance to drought and disease attacks the roots of the plant, reducing the use of chemical fertilizers (environmentally friendly) and maintenance costs as well as the application of fertilizer is only performed one time only.

Thanks for Biovillage project which has provided funding to conduct research activities at the same time a biofertilizer applications can be developed on agricultural crops, horticulture, forest may be useful to society and the environment.
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